Bloom’s Taxonomy Overview

Bloom’s taxonomy classifies various learning objectives set by educators and was developed in the 1950’s by Benjamin Bloom and his co-workers.


Western education systems often describe the outcomes they expect from students as knowledge, skills and attitudes – KSAs.

(University of Alberta)


The taxonomy divides educational outcomes into three domains: cognitive/knowledgeaffective/emotional and psychomotor/doing. Attaining higher level learning within each of these domains is dependent on learning within lower levels of each of these domains.


Bloom’s Taxonomy at-a-glance

Cognitive Affective Psychomotor
knowledge attitude skills
1. Recall data 1. Receive (awareness) 1. Imitation (copy)
2. Understand 2. Respond (react) 2. Manipulation (follow instructions)
3. Apply (use) 3. Value (understand and act) 3. Develop Precision
4. Analyse (structure/elements) 4. Organise personal value system 4. Articulation (combine, integrate related skills)
5. Synthesize (create/build) 5. Internalize value system (adopt behaviour) 5. Naturalization (automate, become expert)
6. Evaluate (assess, judge in relational terms)

(Detail of Bloom’s Taxonomy Domains: ‘Cognitive Domain’ – ‘Affective Domain’ – ‘Psychomotor Domain’)