Bloom’s Taxonomy Overview

Bloom’s taxonomy classifies various learning objectives set by educators and was developed in the 1950’s by Benjamin Bloom and his co-workers.


Western education systems often describe the outcomes they expect from students as knowledge, skills and attitudes – KSAs.

(University of Alberta)


The taxonomy divides educational outcomes into three domains: cognitive/knowledgeaffective/emotional and psychomotor/doing. Attaining higher level learning within each of these domains is dependent on learning within lower levels of each of these domains.


Bloom’s Taxonomy at-a-glance

Cognitive Affective Psychomotor
knowledge attitude skills
1. Recall data 1. Receive (awareness) 1. Imitation (copy)
2. Understand 2. Respond (react) 2. Manipulation (follow instructions)
3. Apply (use) 3. Value (understand and act) 3. Develop Precision
4. Analyse (structure/elements) 4. Organise personal value system 4. Articulation (combine, integrate related skills)
5. Synthesize (create/build) 5. Internalize value system (adopt behaviour) 5. Naturalization (automate, become expert)
6. Evaluate (assess, judge in relational terms)

(Detail of Bloom’s Taxonomy Domains: ‘Cognitive Domain’ – ‘Affective Domain’ – ‘Psychomotor Domain’)



The Fourth Learning Skill

Writing requires you to process a variety of symbols into a readable form. Whilst a solid understanding of the alphabet in use is needed, alongside this; as a writer, you will need a strong command of punctuation and grammar.  In addition, a good sense of  tone/mood will enable you to fully communicate your message in writing.




Ways of Writing

‘Writing takes many forms. Picture writing incorporates recognisable images and symbols. Thought writing communicates with more abstract symbols, each of which represent words or ideas. Sound writing systems use marks or letters that stand for sounds. Many scripts use a combination of all of these forms – Mixed writing systems.’

(British Library)

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Reading is the third learning skill and is the ability to create meaning from written symbols.

Being able to reconise upper and lower case letters (written characters) which form the English Alphabet and understanding which sounds these letters/symbols represent, is the basis of reading skills.

The Uppercase (capital letters) and Lowercase (small letters) of the English Alphabet


Typography is the art and technique of arranging type in order to make language visible.


There are a wide range of Font Styles (some easier to read than others).

Open Dyslexic is a new typeface designed for readers with dyslexia.


Strategies for improving comprehension skills

  • Skim: read for the brief idea or overview.
  • Scan: read for specific details or a specific reason.
  • KWL: determine what you Know about the topic, what you Want to know, and what you Learned.
  • Skip: if you don’t understand a word or section, keep reading ahead. Come back to the section or word again and try to figure out the meaning. Use a dictionary if necessary.
  • Look for headings, subtitles and keywords.
  • Read out loud: children read out loud when they first start reading. You can too. Get comfortable hearing your English voice.
  • Create timelines or charts: reorganize what you read in a different format.
  • Rewrite in a different tense.
  • Rewrite in a different format: for example, rewrite an article in letter or list form.
  • Illustrate: if you think you’re a visual learner, sketch images or an infographic related to what you read.
  • Write the questions: as you read, think about which questions you might find on a test or quiz. Write them down and answer them, or quiz a friend.
  • Summarize or retell: you can do this by writing a letter to a friend, writing a blog post, making a web cam video, or just starting a conversation on this topic.
  • Learn affixes: prefixes and suffixes. This will increase your word recognition.
  • Keep a vocabulary journal.
  • Get a vocabulary partner.
  • Use a pen or ruler. Some people find it is easier to read with a pacer. A pen, ruler or fingertip can help you keep your place and prevent your eyes from wandering off. This may not be suitable if you are reading on a computer or mobile device. Adjust the screen to a larger size if necessary.’


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